The 20th century scientists have found that the Qur’anic verses are true - While discussing the prophethood of Muhammad Mustafa (peace be upon him), we need to go into the backdrop in which the Qur’an was revealed.
Sixth century Arabia was steeped in darkness, as the modern science then was unknown to mankind. The traces of knowledge that were still there were in the shape of Torah, the Psalms of David, and the Bible. The original versions of these Books were lost, and the Jewish and Christian scholars would write them on their own. The books were nothing but scattered pieces of historical events of few prophets (peace be upon them all) carrying no chain of evidence in their narrations.
The Babylon, Egyptian and the Greek cultures were buried. Traces of fine arts speaking of the cultures like those of Egyptian pyramids were available. Ruins could be seen of the Roman culture.
After Islam’s advent, the Muslim scholars revived the philosophy of Plato, Aristotle and Socrates, many of which were proved wrong by science. In short, nothing was known of them before Islam.
Man did not know, 1400 years ago, the matter and its elements; they never had any telescope to see the stars; and thus wrongfully fancied that stars ruled the destinies of the people. They thought earth was a plain surface; it never occurred to them that it was round. Few worshipped the sun and called it sun god. They thought that it rises, it sets and emits heat, it runs right east to west and to them only a god could emit heat and make such a long run. They were not aware of the effects of the winds nor did they know the layers of the atmosphere. Arabian Peninsula in particular had no record of any knowledge then.
In such a background, Allah Almighty sent Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). He was unlettered. The angel Gabriel (peace be upon him) gave him with first revelation: “He has taught man that which he knew not.” (Qur’an, 96:5)
Glory be to God, He taught mankind through his Prophet. He revealed many facts in His Book, the Qur’an, which could be unveiled only after modern scientific development i.e. almost 1,000 or more after the revelation of the Qur’an proving it undoubtedly to be a Book of God.
Qur’an is the book, which brought humanity from pre-scientific age to the age of rationalism. It invited mankind to observe and contemplate the phenomena of nature, including life and death, the creation of the heavens and the earth, the alteration of the day and night, sailing of the ships, the rains which, is sent down from the sky and in the animal life, the changing of the winds, the trailing of the clouds between the sky and the earth. All this phenomena of nature contains the signs of God to believe in his Divine Omnipotence.
The very first line that the Prophet received, “Read in the name of thy Lord, Who created man from something that clings.” (96:1-4) invited our attention to the Lord, the Creator and to His creation. There are other verses too, which explain the processing of the embryo I quote here few of them: “Verily We created man from a drop of mingled liquids to test him, So We make him hearing and knowing.” (76:2)
“He made all things good which He had created and He began the creation of man from clay. Then He made his (i.e. man’s) progeny from a quintessence of despised liquid, Then He fashioned him and breathed into him of His spirit; and He gave you hearing and sight and hearts.” See this verse (32:7-9)
“Thinketh man that he is to be left in vain? Was he not a drop fluid (sperm out of semen) which gushed forth? Thereafter he became ‘Alaqua’ (i.e. something that clings) And made of him a pair, the male and female. Has He not the power to bring back the dead to life.” (75:36-40)
“He it is Who created you from dust, then from a sperm drop then from something which clings then bringeth you forth as a child.” (40/67)
The beauty in the description of the above Qur’anic verses is that modern science could not add any such fact, which relates to the processing, of embryo in the womb and Qur’an does not mention the same.
Before we discuss the truth of these verses, it may be noted that the views of Aristotle (384-322CE) were predominant. He was of the view that actual creation and formation of the embryo was from the menstrual blood. To him the process resembled the curdling of milk into cheese.
The Qur’anic verse (76:2) as mentioned above ultimately proved Aristotle wrong. Explaining the word ‘Amshaj’ (mingled liquids), Ibn Kathir said, “Its root is from ‘Mashaja’ means to mix and ‘Masheej’ means (gamete) mixed with another. Ibn Abbas said, “It means the semen of the man and woman intermingled and then it passes through various stages. God said, “He created you in diverse stages.” (71:14)
However, Europe remained stuck to the unfounded notions of Aristotle, until 1668 when Redi dealt a blow to his theory. Pasteur in 1864 wrote the final obituary to the doctrine of spontaneous generation. In 1883 Van Banden proved that both male and female participated equally in the formation of human zygote.
Thus, what the Qur’an said was finally upheld by the scientists after about 1300 years of scientific ignorance regarding the creation of man.
The 20th century scientists have found that the Qur’anic verses are true and confirm to modern science after a long denial of about 1300 years.
It was impossible for a man living in the early 7th century to have expressed such facts, so it is absurd to say that Muhammad (peace be upon him) wrote the Qur’an. The science confirmed not only the truth of Allah’s Book the Qur’an; it also confirmed the prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him).